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    Keys To Phosphospecific Antibodies

    Phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications that proteins can undergo from a functional point of view. The regulation of a wide range of cellular activities depends on it, such as the cell cycle, cell differentiation, metabolism, neuronal communication … And that is why alterations in phosphorylation are involved in different types of pathologies as diverse as cancer. (alterations in cell division) or learning or memory problems (due to alteration in the transduction of neuronal signals). The development of phosphospecific antibodies has improved traditional methods for studying cell signaling through the development of new immunoassays. Success in detection using phosphospecific antibodies directly depends on the specificity and affinity of that antibody for the phosphorylated protein of interest.…

  • Main

    Antibody Conjugation Guide

    The conjugation of antibodies , also known as marking, is a necessary step for the visualization and measurement results in most immunoassays . Depending on the level of antigen or protein of interest in the sample, we can proceed to a direct assay marking the primary antibody, or to an indirect assay marking the secondary antibody . In this post, we bring you an overview of the usefulness of conjugated antibodies, the types of molecules they are most commonly conjugated to, and the conjugation chemistries most frequently used. Direct Immunoassays Vs. Indirect Immunoassays Direct assays, where the primary antibody, the one that binds directly to the antigen, is the one that is labeled and therefore the one…

  • Genetic Clustering of Tuberculosis in an Indigenous Community of Brazil.
    Genetic Clustering of Tuberculosis in an Indigenous Community of Brazil.

    Genetic Clustering of Tuberculosis in an Indigenous Community of Brazil.

    We conducted a population-based study of tuberculosis (TB) from 2009 to 2015 in an indigenous community of Brazil, the largest in the country, to investigate risk factors associated with recent TB transmission. The clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were genotyped by IS6110-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and spoligotyping analysis. Among 67 isolates typed by RFLP, 69% fell into fifteen clusters, and 91% of TB cases with shared IS6110-RFLP pattern were diagnosed within 2 years of another case in the cluster. Individual risk factors associated with genetic clustering were domestic overcrowding (odds ratio [OR]: 6.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50-24.88) and low social class (OR: 3.72; 95% CI: 1.00-13.98). Most reported…

  • Combining Bayesian genetic clustering and ecological niche modeling: Insights into wolf intraspecific genetic structure.
    Combining Bayesian genetic clustering and ecological niche modeling: Insights into wolf intraspecific genetic structure.

    Combining Bayesian genetic clustering and ecological niche modeling: Insights into wolf intraspecific genetic structure.

    The distribution of intraspecific genetic variation and the way it pertains to environmental components is of accelerating curiosity to researchers in macroecology and biogeography. Recent research investigated the relationships between the setting and patterns of intraspecific genetic variation throughout species ranges however solely few rigorously examined the relation between genetic teams and their ecological niches. We quantified the connection of genetic differentiation (FST) and the overlap of ecological niches (as measured by n-dimensional hypervolumes) amongst genetic teams ensuing from spatial Bayesian genetic clustering within the wolf (Canis lupus) within the Italian peninsula. Within the Italian wolf inhabitants, 4 genetic clusters had been detected, and these clusters confirmed totally different ecological niches.…

  • Clusterin in Alzheimer's Disease: Mechanisms, Genetics, and Lessons From Other Pathologies.
    and Lessons From Other Pathologies.

    Clusterin in Alzheimer’s Disease: Mechanisms, Genetics, and Lessons From Other Pathologies.

    Clusterin (CLU) or APOJ is a multifunctional glycoprotein that has been implicated in a number of physiological and pathological states, together with Alzheimer’s illness (AD). With a outstanding extracellular chaperone perform, extra roles have been mentioned for clusterin, together with lipid transport and immune modulation, and it’s concerned in pathways frequent to a number of ailments similar to cell demise and survival, oxidative stress, and proteotoxic stress. Although clusterin is generally a secreted protein, it has additionally been discovered intracellularly beneath sure stress circumstances. Multiple hypotheses have been proposed relating to the origin of intracellular clusterin, together with particular biogenic processes resulting in various transcripts and protein isoforms, however these…